Village and Wilderness

Microhabitat Program Resource Center

An open access resource for new and emerging microhabitat programs

Microhabitat Program
Resource Center

An open access resource for new and emerging microhabitat programs

On-going research expands our understanding of how microhabitat programs impact species, ecosystem functions and human welfare. This information can influence how we design our programs, but few community-based organizations can afford subscriptions to the many peer-reviewed journals – or afford the time to search for or read them. In this bibliography we present references that we and our academic partners feel are important to the field. Most are found in Google Scholar and many are available free of charge. Where relevant, we have retained the Google Scholar template to facilitate access to full paper when available.

Intensive farming drives long-term shift in avian community composition

JN HendershotJR Smith, CB Anderson,  AD Letten-…Nature, 2020 –

Agricultural practices constitute both the greatest cause of biodiversity loss and the
greatest opportunity for conservation 1, 2, given the shrinking scope of protected areas in many…


Predicting native plant landscaping preferences in urban areas

MN Peterson, B Thurmond, M Mchale… – Sustainable Cities and …, 2012 – Elsevier

The rapidly growing physical footprint of cities makes understanding residential landscaping
preferences increasingly important for water quality, biodiversity conservation, and …


Trees, shrubs, and vines for attracting birds

RM DeGraaf – 2002 –

Revised and updated, this new edition of a much sought-after classic remains the best
source for information about the trees, shrubs, and vines that provide bird habitats and …


Public demand for information and assistance at the human–wildlife interface

KJ Lindsey, CE Adams – Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 2006 – Taylor & Francis

Over 80% of Americans are now classified by the US Bureau of the Census as living in
urban areas. Urban populations are interested in a variety of “non-traditional” wildlife issues …


Improving Habitats for Wildlife in Your Backyard and Neighborhood

S Denkler –

Landscaping that attracts certain species can provide opportunities to enjoy nature and
might increase the value of your property, among other benefits. Habitats can be developed …


Backyard Wildlife Enhancement

G Yarrow – 2009 –

Backyard Wildlife Enhancement Page 1 1 Backyard Wildlife Enhancement Greg Yarrow,
Professor of Wildlife Ecology, Extension Wildlife Specialist The first step in enhancing a …


Helping teachers to use their school’s backyard as an outdoor classroom: A report on the Watershed Learning Center Program

JL Kenney, HP Militana… – The Journal of …, 2003 – Taylor & Francis

Abstract The Watershed Learning Center (WLC) was developed by the Brandywine Valley
Association (BVA) to provide outdoor environmental lessons to schools on their own …


Understanding the Impacts of Urbanization on the Avian Community of Portland Oregon and Evaluation of the Portland Oregon Backyard Habitat Certification Program

AD Gibbs – 2018 –

Over fifty percent of humans live in cities. The environmental cost of this is massive, as is the
potential for utilizing privately held yards as an integral part of conservation in urban areas …


Backyard wildlife habitat and fire safety: A guide for residents of Flagstaff fire

A Minard, C Peterson, D Vosick… – ERI Guides for …, 2006 –

Backyard Wildlife Habitat and Fire Safety Page 1 Residents of Flagstaff live in a beautiful area
of the county—a region of volcanic mountains, deep canyons, crimson deserts, pines and …


Residents’ drivers and barriers to participation in the Backyard Habitat Certification Program: Study of socio-ecological factors in Madison South neighborhood in NE … 

J Powel – 2014 –

As urban development fractures and reduces available habitat for birds and other wildlife,
conservationists are increasing pursuing strategies to improve the habitat value of privately …


Backyard Bandicoots: What factors determine habitat suitability?

E Reynolds – 2020 –

With such a large percentage of Australia’s threatened species living in, or directly
alongside, urban areas, conservation research is switching focus to the potential of these …


Backyard Biodiversity: An Analysis of Butterfly Richness and Abundance Within Suburban Habitat Types in Southeast Michigan

H Jiang – 2021 –

Urbanization, urban sprawl, and the resulting rural-urban gradient have had major impacts
on biodiversity, but few studies have investigated their effects on butterfly species in …


Determining the effect of urbanization on generalist butterfly species diversity in butterfly gardens

D Di Mauro, T DietzL Rockwood – Urban ecosystems, 2007 – Springer

This study investigates the effects of urbanization on local butterfly populations and the role
of butterfly gardens in preserving regional butterfly diversity. Data are from 135 butterfly …


Backyard biodiversity

G Brakey – Greening the City: bringing biodiversity back into the …, 2003 –

Much of the urban area of New Zealand is in either public or private land ownership.
Biodiversity outside the public conservation lands includes farms, Māori land, urban …


National Wildlife Federation®: Attracting Birds, Butterflies, and Other Backyard Wildlife

D Mizejewski – 2019 –

From renowned National Wildlife Federation naturalist and TV host David Mizejewski comes
a new book to show you how to create a magical ecosystem right in your backyard! Invite …


The neighborhood nestwatch program: participant outcomes of a citizen-science ecological research project

C Evans, E Abrams, R Reitsma, K Roux… – Conservation …, 2005 – JSTOR

Formal education is not enough to ensure scientific literacy in a world where ideas and
technology are changing rapidly (Hacker & Harris 1992). Projects that invite citizens to be …


Backyard Biomes: is anyone there? Improving public awareness of urban wildlife activity

LL FardellCR PaveyCR Dickman – Diversity, 2022 –

Wildlife are increasingly being found in urban habitats, and likely rely on some resources in
suburban household yards, which exposes them to the effects of yard management and …


Using implementation and program theory to examine communication strategies in National Wildlife Federation’s Backyard Wildlife Habitat Program

D Palmer, SL Dann – Applied Environmental Education & …, 2004 – Taylor & Francis

Our evaluative approach used implementation theory and program theory, adapted from to
examine communication processes and results for a national wildlife habitat stewardship …


Community Science and the Ecological Merits of Backyard Habitat Patches and Adjacent Green-Spaces for Urban Avian Species 

KS Gulick, N West, M Dresner – 2017 –

Fig 2. Backyards in increasing distance (mi) from Keller Woodlands and the mean
abundance and richness for the backyards and Keller Woodlands. Fig 7. The goals of …


Planting a refuge for wildlife: How to create a backyard habitat for Florida’s birds and beasts 

S Cerulean, C Botha, D Legare, S Nardandrea – 1986 –

Preface a recent public opinion poll, 88 percent of all Floridians said it is important to know
that wild animals live around their homes. Yet millions of our residents don’t realize how …


An unexpected backyard hunter: Breeding Barred Owls exhibit plasticity in habitat selection along a development gradient 

MA Clément, K BarrettRF Baldwin… – Urban …, 2021 – Springer

Despite extensive accounts in the literature describing Barred Owls (Strix varia) as obligate
forest-interior species, Barred Owls have increasingly been observed in urbanized …


In our own backyard 

LW Adams – Journal of Urban Forestry, 1994 –

By Lowell W. Adams make no mistake, urbanization has a tremendous effect on wildlife. With
our continuing demand for more houses, more roads, more energy, and our advanced …


Native plants are the bee’s knees: local and landscape predictors of bee richness and abundance in backyard gardens 

GL PardeeSM Philpott – Urban Ecosystems, 2014 – Springer

Urban gardens may support bees by providing resources in otherwise resource-poor
environments. However, it is unclear whether urban, backyard gardens with native plants …


A comparison of sweep net, yellow pan trap and malaise trap for sampling parasitic Hymenoptera in a backyard habitat in Kerala 

M Shweta, K Rajmohana – Entomon, 2018 –

The trapping efficiency of three main parasitic hymenopteran sampling gadgets, the sweep
net (SN), yellow pan traps (YPT) and malaise trap (MT) was assessed in two periods …


Assessing habitat connectivity for grounddwelling animals in an urban environment

S Braaker, M Moretti, R Boesch, J Ghazoul… – Ecological …, 2014 – Wiley Online Library

To ensure viable species populations in fragmented landscapes, individuals must be able to
move between suitable habitat patches. Despite the increased interest in biodiversity …


Biodiversity in the city: fundamental questions for understanding the ecology of urban green spaces for biodiversity conservation

CA LepczykMFJ AronsonKL EvansMA Goddard… – …, 2017 –

As urban areas expand, understanding how ecological processes function in cities has
become increasingly important for conserving biodiversity. Urban green spaces are critical …


Corridor ecology: linking landscapes for biodiversity conservation and climate adaptation

JA HiltyATH KeeleyAM Merenlender, WZ Lidicker Jr – 2019 –

Migrating wildlife species across the globe face a dire predicament as their traditional
migratory routes are cut off by human encroachment. Forced into smaller and smaller …


Landscape structure indices for assessing urban ecological networks

EA Cook – Landscape and urban planning, 2002 – Elsevier

Analysis and planning of ecological networks is a relatively new phenomenon and is a
response to fragmentation and deterioration of quality of natural systems. In urban areas, the …


Urban reconciliation ecology: the potential of living roofs and walls

RA FrancisJ Lorimer – Journal of environmental management, 2011 – Elsevier

Reconciling human and non-human use of urban regions to support biological conservation
represents a major challenge for the 21st century. The concept of reconciliation ecology, by …


Biodiversity in cities needs space: a metaanalysis of factors determining intraurban biodiversity variation

J Beninde, M Veith, A Hochkirch – Ecology letters, 2015 – Wiley Online Library

Understanding varying levels of biodiversity within cities is pivotal to protect it in the face of
global urbanisation. In the early stages of urban ecology studies on intra
urban biodiversity …


Urban habitats

CP Wheater – 1999 –

The author presents an illustrated and practical guide to the wide range of urban habitats
and the flora and fauna that live within them. The important conservation and management …


Avifaunal use of wooded streets in an urban landscape

E FernándezJuricic – Conservation biology, 2000 – Wiley Online Library

Birds in urban landscapes primarily occupy parks (forest fragments), wooded streets (linear
strips connecting fragments), or the urban matrix. I studied the effects of street location in the …


Integrating biodiversity conservation and sustainable use: lessons learned from ecological networks

G Bennett – 2004 –

IUCN’s 5th World Parks Congress (2003) concluded that parks should not exist as unique
islands, but need to be planned and managed as an integral part of the broader landscape …


Ecological networks and greenways: concept, design, implementation

RHG JongmanG Pungetti – 2004 –

The establishment of ecological networks in Europe and greenways in America has required
some of the most advanced applications of the principles of landscape ecology to land use …


Ecology and urban planning

J Niemelä – Biodiversity & Conservation, 1999 – Springer

Urban areas harbour diverse nature ranging from semi-natural habitats to wastelands, parks
and other highly human-influenced biotopes with their associated species assemblages …


Linking wilderness mapping and connectivity modelling: A methodological framework for wildland network planning

Y Cao, R Yang, S Carver – Biological Conservation, 2020 – Elsevier

Habitat fragmentation is one of the key drivers of global biodiversity loss. In this context,
connectivity modelling is increasingly important for effective conservation. Most previous …


Urban grassland restoration: a neglected opportunity for biodiversity conservation

VH Klaus – Restoration Ecology, 2013 – Wiley Online Library

Urbanization is one of the most severe threats to biodiversity, so why should not we use
green space in cities to counteract the biodiversity loss as much as possible? Urban …


Urban comprehensive planning–identifying barriers for the maintenance of functional habitat networks

UG Sandström, P Angelstam, A Khakee – Landscape and urban planning, 2006 – Elsevier

Maintaining biodiversity requires a wise combination of protection, management and
recreation of habitats to secure representative and functional habitat networks. As …


Correcting common misconceptions to inspire conservation action in urban environments

K SoanesM SieversYE Chee… – Conservation …, 2019 – Wiley Online Library

Despite repeated calls to action, proposals for urban conservation are often met with
surprise or scepticism. There remains a pervasive narrative in policy, practice, and the public …


Ecological connectivity research in urban areas

S LaPointN BalkenholJ Hale, J Sadler… – Functional …, 2015 – Wiley Online Library

The successful movement of individuals is fundamental to life. Facilitating these movements
by promoting ecological connectivity has become a central theme in ecology and …


Green roofs and green walls for biodiversity conservation: a contribution to urban connectivity?

F Mayrand, P Clergeau – Sustainability, 2018 –

Green roofs and walls have recently emerged as conservation tools, and they offer
promising additional opportunities to enhance biodiversity in cities. However, their …

Urban landscapes and sustainable cities

E Andersson – Ecology and society, 2006 – JSTOR

Ecological research targeting sustainable urban landscapes needs to include findings and
methods from many lines of ecological research, such as the link between biodiversity and …


Restoration, reconciliation, and reconnecting with nature nearby

JR Miller – Biological conservation, 2006 – Elsevier

Biotic homogenization is in many ways a function of spatial and temporal scale. Another
aspect of this phenomenon that perhaps receives somewhat less attention is related to “the …


Conserving biodiversity in urbanizing areas: nontraditional views from a bird’s perspective

J MarzluffA Rodewald – Cities and the Environment …, 2008 –

We review common population and community-level responses of wildlife to urbanization,
and discuss how:(1) the amount and configuration of land cover and land use, and (2) the …


Biodiversity in urban habitat patches

PG Angold, JP Sadler, MO Hill, A Pullin… – Science of the Total …, 2006 – Elsevier

We examined the biodiversity of urban habitats in Birmingham (England) using a
combination of field surveys of plants and carabid beetles, genetic studies of four species of …


Urban landscape conservation and the role of ecological greenways at local and metropolitan scales

MM Bryant – Landscape and urban planning, 2006 – Elsevier

Greenways are promoted for land conservation in both rural and urban areas, but less
attention has been paid to the potential of greenways to serve urban biodiversity …


Motivations for conserving urban biodiversity

DC DearbornS Kark – Conservation biology, 2010 – Wiley Online Library

In a time of increasing urbanization, the fundamental value of conserving urban biodiversity
remains controversial. How much of a fixed budget should be spent on conservation in …


Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities

ANM NorR CorstanjeJA HarrisDR Grafius… – Heliyon, 2017 – Elsevier

Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation
decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and …


Connectivity in urbanizing landscapes: The importance of habitat configuration, urban area size, and dispersal

BG Bierwagen – Urban ecosystems, 2007 – Springer

Human activities affect both the amount and configuration of habitat. These changes have
important ecological implications that can be measured as changes in landscape …


Temporary conservation for urban biodiversity

M KattwinkelR BiedermannM Kleyer – Biological Conservation, 2011 – Elsevier

Urban habitats, particularly wastelands and brownfields, maintain rich biodiversity and offer
habitat for many species, even rare and endangered taxa. However, such habitats are also …


Importance of backyard habitat in a comprehensive biodiversity conservation strategy: a connectivity analysis of urban green spaces 

H Rudd, J Vala, V Schaefer – Restoration ecology, 2002 – Wiley Online Library

Connectivity has been an accepted goal in ecological restoration of wilderness areas for
some time, but it is a relatively new approach in urban areas. The connectivity analysis …